Dreyer G, Noroes J, Addiss D, Santos A, Medeiros Z, Figueredo-Silva J.
BANCROFTIAN FILARIASIS IN A PAEDIATRIC POPULATION: AN ULTRASONOGRAPHIC STUDY.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1999 Nov-Dec;93(6):633-6.
Little is known about lymphatic filariasis or the anatomical location of adult Wuchereria bancrofti in children. Seventy-eight children from Greater Recife, 23 microfilaria-positive and 55 microfilaria-negative in approximately 60 microL blood, underwent ultrasound examinations of the major superficial lymphatic vessels of the limbs, scrotal area (boys), and breast area (girls). The characteristic movements of adult worms, known as the filaria dance sign (FDS), were detected in 11 (14.1%) children. In 9 boys, the FDS was detected in lymphatic vessels of the scrotal area (8, ages 14-16) and the inguinal cord (1, age 11). In girls, the FDS was detected in a crural lymphatic vessel and an axillary lymph node. FDS detection was more common in boys (P = 0.06), older children (P = 0.001), and children with microfilaraemia (P = 0.05). Diffuse lymphangiectasia was visualized in 4 boys (ages 14-16) and 2 children had clinical signs of filariasis. These ultrasonographic findings associate W. bancrofti with both infection and disease in children.