Dreyer G, Mattos D, Norões J.
Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2007; 53(5): 449-53.
The rupture or fistulization of lymph vessels into the urinary system, known as chyluria (milky urine), is caused mainly by Bancroftian filariasis. On rare occasions chyluria may also be caused by neoplasia, lymphatic malformation, abdominal trauma, as well as other infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. The authors proposed general guidelines to manage patients suffering from milky urine in bancroftian filariasis endemic and non-endemic areas. They emphasized the importance of a careful diagnostic process accomplished using screening procedures, evaluating a detailed history of illness and performing a careful physical examination, targeting on the most suitable diagnostic tools for each case. In addition, they emphasized the need to manage the patient from a broader perspective, which goes beyond the medical aspect, involving also social and nutritional contexts. In the great majority of cases, controlling chyluria is fundamentally based on patient education and adjustment to a low lipid, high protein diet in addition to increased fluid intake.